Irland Gegen England
Irland Gegen England Inhaltsverzeichnis
Trotzdem wurde der irische Widerstand gegen die Plantations immer effektiver, da die Iren eine Art Guerilla-Krieg führten, auf den damalige englische Streitkräfte. Der Irische Unabhängigkeitskrieg (engl.: Irish War of Independence, irisch: Cogadh na Saoirse, „Freiheitskrieg“) dauerte von Januar bis Juli Er wurde von der Irischen Republikanischen Armee (IRA) in einer Art Guerilla-Kampf gegen die britische Regierung in Irland geführt. Daher wurden Pläne geschmiedet, „den Krieg nach England zu bringen“. Der Nordirlandkonflikt (englisch The Troubles, irisch Na Trioblóidí) beherrschte die nordirische Aus Dank für die nordirische Bereitschaft, mit Großbritannien gegen Hitler in den Krieg zu ziehen (anders als der Freistaat Irland, der neutral. Teil 4: Irland gegen England – Aufstand und Unabhängigkeit. Auf Grund der plantation-Gesetze und der Enteignungen im vergangenen Jahrhundert. Die Geschichte Irlands kann mit der Ankunft des modernen Menschen in der Zeit des Creswellien angesetzt werden, einer endpaläolithischen Kulturstufe, die sich in Folge des Rückgangs der Weichsel-Vereisung auf den Britischen Inseln zwischen
Deutschlands Gruppengegner Irland hat erneut einen Achtungserfolg gegen den Erzrivalen England erzielt. Durch ein gegen Wayne Rooney und Co. in. Die Geschichte Irlands kann mit der Ankunft des modernen Menschen in der Zeit des Creswellien angesetzt werden, einer endpaläolithischen Kulturstufe, die sich in Folge des Rückgangs der Weichsel-Vereisung auf den Britischen Inseln zwischen Der Austritt der Briten bedroht ihn, wobei auch eine "irische Lösung" denkbar anglikanische und presbyterianische Siedler (Protestanten) aus England und Auch die katholische Kirche wandte sich gegen die militanten Vertragsgegner. Jahrhunderts regte sich erneut der Widerstand gegen die englische Besatzungsmacht. Jegliche Autonomiebestrebungen wurden jedoch von den Briten. Ihr wolltet schon immer wissen, was in Irland früher los war? at peace“ planten Padraig und seine Gefolgsleute einen bewaffneten Aufstand gegen England. Jahrhundert, dass sich Irland gegen die nordische Kämpferschar endgültig zur „zwangsverheiratet“, und gegenüber den Katholiken Irlands lockerte England. Der eindeutige englische Sieg sicherte die englische / britische Herrschaft über Irland für die nächsten Jahrhunderte, auch wenn weitere im Flight of the Earls & werben vergeblich in Spanien Unterstützung gegen die englische Herrschaft. Deutschlands Gruppengegner Irland hat erneut einen Achtungserfolg gegen den Erzrivalen England erzielt. Durch ein gegen Wayne Rooney und Co. in.
Anglo-normanniske lejetropper kom i under ledelse af Richard de Clare, 2. I nedlagdes koloniens parlament, og Irland blev med unionsloven en del af Det Forenede Kongerige Storbritannien og Irland.
Katolikker var udelukket fra at sidde i parlamentet indtil Irlands befolkning er af keltisk oprindelse. Kelterne i Irland er et af de keltiske folk, som har taget flest omveje under vandringen.
Disse kelter-iberer udvandrede til Irland omkring 1. Landets officielle sprog er irsk , men er i realiteten erstattet af engelsk.
Irsk er siden officielt EU-sprog. Det tales kun af omkring Der bor cirka Siden har befolkningstallet udviklet sig positivt til omkring 4.
Den Presbyterianske Kirkes medlemmer er overvejende efterkommerne af skotske indvandrere og derfor mest udbredt i Nordirland.
Med 1. Irland er en republik med parlamentarisk regeringssystem. Siden har Michael D. Alle tre har hjemme i Dublin.
Regeringen har til huse i Government Buildings. Senere blev begge bygninger permanente regerings- og parlamentsbygninger.
For hver Ved parlamentsvalget den Den 2. Han blev den 7. Den Irerne stemte nej. Ved den anden folkeafstemning den 2.
Den 9. Higgins fra Irish Labour Party valgtes den Hovedkvarteret befinder sig i Phoenix Park i Dublin. Gardaen blev oprettet i , de omkring 9.
De suppleres af cirka 1. Irland er indelt i seks politiregioner, herunder Dublin Metropolitan-regionen, som er ledet af en Regional Assistant Commissioner.
Georges Kanal , og i sydvest af det Keltiske hav. Kun tre af Irlands bjerge er over 1. Andre kendte bjerge er Mount Brandon og Croagh Patrick.
Floden deler det centrale lavland fra den mere kuperede vestlige del. I syd ligger Cork med Limerick med Galway har Waterford , hvor der bor Se Byer i Irland.
Det regner meget i Irland. Provinserne har i nutiden ingen betydning for statens forvaltning og spiller kun en rolle i sporten, da denne i Irland er organiseret kommunalt.
Local Government Reform Act reducerede fra antallet af kommuner til Irland er det eneste land i verden, der har et musikinstrument som nationalsymbol — nemlig harpen.
Irsk folkemusik er en genre inden for folkemusikken og er kendt over hele verden. Det specielle ved Riverdance er, at omkring 20 dansere stepper synkront.
George Augustus Moore , George Bernard Shaw , Indtil tallet var den irske litteratur en aristokratisk litteratur og blev varetaget af en professionel gruppe filid seere.
Videre skrev James Stephens fantasifulde historier. Gaelic football , Hurling , og den af kvinder spillede variant Camogie, er udbredt over alt i Irland Der er The population of Ireland stood at 4,, in , an increase of 8.
The total fertility rate TFR in was estimated at 1. At the time of the census, the number of non-Irish nationals was recorded at , The five largest sources of non-Irish nationals were Poland , , the UK , , Lithuania 36, , Romania 29, and Latvia 19, respectively.
There were four new additions to the top ten largest non-Irish nationalities in Brazilian 13, , Spanish 12, , Italian 11, , and French 11, Dublin Cork.
Limerick Galway. The following is a list of functional urban areas in Ireland as defined by the OECD and their approximate populations as of [update].
The Irish Constitution describes Irish as the "national language", but English is the dominant language.
Irish is spoken as a community language only in a small number of rural areas mostly in the west and south of the country, collectively known as the Gaeltacht.
Except in Gaeltacht regions, road signs are usually bilingual. While the state is officially bilingual, citizens can often struggle to access state services in Irish and most government publications are not available in both languages, even though citizens have the right to deal with the state in Irish.
In the Irish Defence Forces , all foot and arms drill commands are given in the Irish language. As a result of immigration, Polish is the most widely spoken language in Ireland after English, with Irish as the third most spoken.
Other languages spoken in Ireland include Shelta , spoken by Irish Travellers, and a dialect of Scots is spoken by some Ulster Scots people in Donegal.
Some secondary schools also offer Ancient Greek , Hebrew and Latin. The study of Irish is compulsory for Leaving Certificate students, but some may qualify for an exemption in some circumstances, such as learning difficulties or entering the country after age Healthcare in Ireland is provided by both public and private healthcare providers.
Every resident of Ireland is entitled to receive health care through the public health care system, which is managed by the Health Service Executive and funded by general taxation.
A person may be required to pay a subsidised fee for certain health care received; this depends on income, age, illness or disability.
All maternity services are provided free of charge and children up to the age of 6 months. Emergency care is provided to patients who present to a hospital emergency department.
In some circumstances this fee is not payable or may be waived. Anyone holding a European Health Insurance Card is entitled to free maintenance and treatment in public beds in Health Service Executive and voluntary hospitals.
Outpatient services are also provided for free. However, the majority of patients on median incomes or above are required to pay subsidised hospital charges.
Private health insurance is available to the population for those who want to avail of it. The average life expectancy in Ireland in was Ireland has three levels of education: primary, secondary and higher education.
The education systems are largely under the direction of the Government via the Minister for Education and Skills. Recognised primary and secondary schools must adhere to the curriculum established by the relevant authorities.
Education is compulsory between the ages of six and fifteen years, and all children up to the age of eighteen must complete the first three years of secondary, including one sitting of the Junior Certificate examination.
There are approximately 3, primary schools in Ireland. Schools run by religious organisations, but receiving public money and recognition, cannot discriminate against pupils based upon religion or lack thereof.
A sanctioned system of preference does exist, where students of a particular religion may be accepted before those who do not share the ethos of the school, in a case where a school's quota has already been reached.
The Leaving Certificate , which is taken after two years of study, is the final examination in the secondary school system.
Those intending to pursue higher education normally take this examination, with access to third-level courses generally depending on results obtained from the best six subjects taken, on a competitive basis.
The Programme for International Student Assessment , coordinated by the OECD , currently ranks Ireland as having the fourth highest reading score, ninth highest science score and thirteenth highest mathematics score, among OECD countries, in its assessment.
In addition, 37 percent of Ireland's population has a university or college degree , which is among the highest percentages in the world.
Religious freedom is constitutionally provided for in Ireland. Christianity is the predominant religion, and while Ireland remains a predominantly Catholic country, the percentage of the population who identified as Catholic on the census has fallen sharply from The Church of Ireland , at 2.
Membership declined throughout the twentieth century, but experienced an increase early in the 21st century, as have other small Christian denominations.
Immigration has contributed to a growth in Hindu and Muslim populations. Saint Patrick is the only one commonly recognised as the patron saint.
Saint Patrick's Day is celebrated on 17 March in Ireland and abroad as the Irish national day, with parades and other celebrations.
As with other predominantly Catholic European states, Ireland underwent a period of legal secularisation in the late twentieth century.
In , the article of the Constitution naming specific religious groups was deleted by the Fifth Amendment in a referendum.
Article 44 remains in the Constitution: "The State acknowledges that the homage of public worship is due to Almighty God. It shall hold His Name in reverence, and shall respect and honour religion.
Religious studies was introduced as an optional Junior Certificate subject in Although many schools are run by religious organisations, a secularist trend is occurring among younger generations.
Ireland's culture was for centuries predominantly Gaelic , and it remains one of the six principal Celtic nations. Following the Anglo-Norman invasion in the 12th century, and gradual British conquest and colonisation beginning in the 16th century, Ireland became influenced by English and Scottish culture.
Subsequently, Irish culture, though distinct in many aspects, shares characteristics with the Anglosphere , Catholic Europe , and other Celtic regions.
The Irish diaspora , one of the world's largest and most dispersed, has contributed to the globalisation of Irish culture, producing many prominent figures in art, music, and science.
Ireland has made a significant contribution to world literature in both the English and Irish languages.
Modern Irish fiction began with the publishing of the novel Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift. Bram Stoker is best known as the author of the novel Dracula.
James Joyce — published his most famous work Ulysses in , which is an interpretation of the Odyssey set in Dublin. Edith Somerville continued writing after the death of her partner Martin Ross in Dublin's Annie M.
Smithson was one of several authors catering for fans of romantic fiction in the s and s. Patricia Lynch was a prolific children's author in the 20th century, while Eoin Colfer 's works were NYT Best Sellers in this genre in the early 21st century.
The history of Irish theatre begins with the expansion of the English administration in Dublin during the early 17th century, and since then, Ireland has significantly contributed to English drama.
In its early history, theatrical productions in Ireland tended to serve political purposes, but as more theatres opened and the popular audience grew, a more diverse range of entertainments were staged.
Many Dublin-based theatres developed links with their London equivalents, and British productions frequently found their way to the Irish stage.
However, most Irish playwrights went abroad to establish themselves. In the 18th century, Oliver Goldsmith and Richard Brinsley Sheridan were two of the most successful playwrights on the London stage at that time.
At the beginning of the 20th century, theatre companies dedicated to the staging of Irish plays and the development of writers, directors and performers began to emerge, which allowed many Irish playwrights to learn their trade and establish their reputations in Ireland rather than in Britain or the United States.
Irish traditional music has remained vibrant, despite globalising cultural forces, and retains many traditional aspects.
It has influenced various music genres, such as American country and roots music, and to some extent modern rock.
It has occasionally been blended with styles such as rock and roll and punk rock. Ireland has also produced many internationally known artists in other genres, such as rock, pop, jazz, and blues.
Opera Ireland produces large-scale operas in Dublin, the Opera Theatre Company tours its chamber-style operas throughout the country, and the annual Wexford Opera Festival , which promotes lesser-known operas, takes place during October and November.
Ireland has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest since The phenomenon Riverdance originated as an interval performance during the contest.
Irish dance can broadly be divided into social dance and performance dance. There are also many stylistic differences between these two forms.
Irish social dance is a living tradition, and variations in particular dances are found across the country. In some places dances are deliberately modified and new dances are choreographed.
Performance dance is traditionally referred to as stepdance. Irish stepdance , popularised by the show Riverdance , is notable for its rapid leg movements, with the body and arms being kept largely stationary.
The solo stepdance is generally characterised by a controlled but not rigid upper body, straight arms, and quick, precise movements of the feet.
The solo dances can either be in "soft shoe" or "hard shoe". The country instead had an extended period of Iron Age architecture. Christianity introduced simple monastic houses , such as Clonmacnoise , Skellig Michael and Scattery Island.
A stylistic similarity has been remarked between these double monasteries and those of the Copts of Egypt.
Castles were built by the Anglo-Normans during the late 12th century, such as Dublin Castle and Kilkenny Castle ,  and the concept of the planned walled trading town was introduced, which gained legal status and several rights by grant of a Charter under Feudalism.
These charters specifically governed the design of these towns. These episodes of planned settlement account for the majority of present-day towns throughout the country.
Gothic cathedrals, such as St Patrick's , were also introduced by the Normans. Beginning with the American designed art deco church at Turner's Cross in , Irish architecture followed the international trend towards modern and sleek building styles since the 20th century.
The Royal Institute of the Architects of Ireland regulates the practice of architecture in the state. All these channels are available on Saorview , the national free-to-air digital terrestrial television service.
Subscription-based television providers operating in Ireland include Virgin Media and Sky. Supported by the Irish Film Board , the Irish film industry grew significantly since the s, with the promotion of indigenous films as well as the attraction of international productions like Braveheart and Saving Private Ryan.
A large number of regional and local radio stations are available countrywide. It also operates four national DAB radio stations. There are two independent national stations: Today FM and Newstalk.
Ireland has a traditionally competitive print media, which is divided into daily national newspapers and weekly regional newspapers, as well as national Sunday editions.
The strength of the British press is a unique feature of the Irish print media scene, with the availability of a wide selection of British published newspapers and magazines.
Irish cuisine was traditionally based on meat and dairy products, supplemented with vegetables and seafood. Examples of popular Irish cuisine include boxty , colcannon , coddle , stew , and bacon and cabbage.
Ireland is famous for the full Irish breakfast , which involves a fried or grilled meal generally consisting of rashers, egg, sausage, white and black pudding, and fried tomato.
Apart from the influence by European and international dishes, there has been an emergence of a new Irish cuisine based on traditional ingredients handled in new ways.
Shellfish have increased in popularity, especially due to the high quality shellfish available from the country's coastline.
The most popular fish include salmon and cod. Traditional breads include soda bread and wheaten bread.
Barmbrack is a yeasted bread with added sultanas and raisins , traditionally eaten on Halloween. Popular everyday beverages among the Irish include tea and coffee.
James's Gate in Dublin. Irish whiskey is also popular throughout the country and comes in various forms, including single malt, single grain, and blended whiskey.
Gaelic football and hurling are the traditional sports of Ireland as well as most popular spectator sports.
Other Gaelic games organised by the association include Gaelic handball and rounders. Soccer is the third most popular spectator sport and has the highest level of participation.
The Irish Rugby Football Union is the governing body of rugby union , which is played at local and international levels on an all-Ireland basis, and has produced players such as Brian O'Driscoll and Ronan O'Gara , who were on the team that won the Grand Slam in The success of the Irish Cricket Team in the Cricket World Cup has led to an increase in the popularity of cricket , which is also administered on an all-Ireland basis by Cricket Ireland.
Professional domestic matches are played between the major cricket unions of Leinster , Munster , Northern , and North West.
Netball is represented by the Ireland national netball team. Golf is another popular sport in Ireland, with over courses countrywide.
Horse Racing has a very large presence in Ireland, with one of the most influential breeding and racing operations based in the country.
Racing takes place at courses at The Curragh Racecourse in County Kildare and at Leopardstown Racecourse , racing taking place since the s, but racing taking place as early as the early s.
Popular race meetings also take place at Galway. Operations include Coolmore Stud and Ballydoyle , the base of Aidan O'Brien arguably one of the world's most successful horse trainers.
Ireland has produced champion horses such as Galileo , Montjeu , and Sea the Stars. Boxing is Ireland's most successful sport at an Olympic level.
Administered by the Irish Athletic Boxing Association on an all-Ireland basis, it has gained in popularity as a result of the international success of boxers such as Bernard Dunne , Andy Lee and Katie Taylor.
The annual Dublin Marathon and Dublin Women's Mini Marathon are two of the most popular athletics events in the country.
Rugby league is represented by the Ireland national rugby league team and administered by Rugby League Ireland who are full member of the Rugby League European Federation on an all-Ireland basis.
The profile of Australian rules football has increased in Ireland due to the International rules series that take place annually between Australia and Ireland.
Baseball and basketball are also emerging sports in Ireland, both of which have an international team representing the island of Ireland. Other sports which retain a strong following in Ireland include cycling , greyhound racing , horse riding , motorsport , and softball.
Ireland ranks fifth in the world in terms of gender equality. Divorce rates in Ireland are very low compared to European Union averages 0.
Abortion had been banned throughout the period of the Irish state, first through provisions of the Offences Against the Person Act and later by the Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act The right to life of the unborn was protected in the constitution by the Eighth Amendment in ; this provision was removed following a referendum , and replaced it with a provision allowing legislation to regulate the termination of pregnancy.
The Health Regulation of Termination of Pregnancy Act passed later that year provided for abortion generally during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, and in specified circumstances after that date.
Capital punishment is constitutionally banned in Ireland, while discrimination based on age, gender, sexual orientation, marital or familial status, religion, race or membership of the travelling community is illegal.
The legislation which outlawed homosexual acts was repealed in Ireland became the first country in the world to introduce an environmental levy for plastic shopping bags in and a public smoking ban in Recycling in Ireland is carried out extensively, and Ireland has the second highest rate of packaging recycling in the European Union.
It was the first country in Europe to ban incandescent lightbulbs in and the first EU country to ban in-store tobacco advertising and product display in The state shares many symbols with the island of Ireland.
These include the colours green and blue , animals such as the Irish wolfhound and stags , structures such as round towers and celtic crosses , and designs such as Celtic knots and spirals.
The shamrock , a type of clover , has been a national symbol of Ireland since the 17th century when it became customary to wear it as a symbol on St.
Patrick's Day. These symbols are used by state institutions as well as private bodies in the Republic of Ireland.
The flag of Ireland is a tricolour of green, white and orange. The flag originates with the Young Ireland movement of the midth century but was not popularised until its use during the Easter Rising of A naval jack , a green flag with a yellow harp, is set out in Defence Forces Regulations and flown from the bows of warships in addition to the national flag in limited circumstances e.
It is based on the unofficial green ensign of Ireland used in the 18th and 19th centuries and the traditional green flag of Ireland dating from the 16th century.
Although originally published in English in ,  the song was translated into Irish in and the Irish-language version is more commonly sung today.
The arms of Ireland originate as the arms of the monarchs of Ireland and was recorded as the arms of the King of Ireland in the 12th century.
From the union of the crowns of England , Scotland and Ireland in , they have appeared quartered on the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom.
Today, they are the personal arms of the President of Ireland whilst he or she is in office and are flown as the presidential standard.
The harp symbol is used extensively by the state to mark official documents, Irish coinage and on the seal of the President of Ireland.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in Europe on the island of Ireland. This article is about the sovereign state. For other uses, see Ireland disambiguation.
Ireland [a]. Irish [b] English . Main article: Names of the Irish state. Main article: History of the Republic of Ireland.
For the history of the entire island, see History of Ireland. Main article: Home Rule movement. Main article: Irish Civil War. Main article: Geography of Ireland.
Main article: Climate of Ireland. Main article: Politics of the Republic of Ireland. Main article: Local government in the Republic of Ireland.
Main article: Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland. Main article: Defence Forces Ireland. See also: Irish neutrality.
Main article: Economy of the Republic of Ireland. See also: Corporation tax in the Republic of Ireland. Main article: Energy in Ireland. Main article: Demographics of the Republic of Ireland.
See also: Irish population analysis. See also: List of urban areas in the Republic of Ireland by population. Main article: Healthcare in the Republic of Ireland.
Main article: Education in the Republic of Ireland. Main article: Religion in the Republic of Ireland. Main article: Culture of Ireland.
Main article: Irish literature. Main articles: Irish music and Irish dance. Main article: Architecture of Ireland.
Main article: Media of the Republic of Ireland. Main article: Irish cuisine. Further information: List of Irish dishes. Main article: Sport in Ireland.
Further information: Symbols of the Republic of Ireland. Ireland portal. The euro was introduced as an accounting currency in Office of the Attorney-General.
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